By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

**Read Online or Download A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides PDF**

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**Extra resources for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides **

**Sample text**

This mode of gas-ionization-detector operation is said to occur in the Geiger region and the detector itself is known as a Geiger-Miiller counter. 3 GEIGER-MULLER COUNTERS / 31 multiple pulses may occur, due to the neutralization of the positive ions at the cathode and consequent release of photoelectrons from the cathode after a delay of several hundred microseconds. Such quenching may be achieved externally, by electronic means, or internally, by adding a suitable polyatomic gas. 3 kPa). Alcohol has a lower ionization potential than argon, so that the ions moving toward the cathode will, after a few collisions, consist only of alcohol ions.

An excellent review of the use of liquid scintillators in radionuclide metrology has been given by Vatin (1980) in BIPM Monograph No. 3 (1980), in which monograph references to just over 300 publications in the field are listed. 1 Gas-Scintillation Counters. Perhaps the most common effect observed due to the passage of ionizing radiation through gases is the emission of light. Light may be readily observed, for example, from electric discharges or from an intense beam of charged particles passing through a gas.

When it is necessary to establish an actual counting rate, it is difficult to know a t which point on the plateau to count. 1 percent, counting-rate change per hundred volts, can be achieved. Therefore, for standardization work, or for any other precise counting, preference should be given to the proportional counter. 2). In the case of length-compensated internal gas counters, used for the assay of radioactive nuclides in the gaseous form, a plot of the difference in the count rates, at the same voltage, for two cylindrical counters, 32 1 2.