By F A Smith
This primer offers with the crucial components of task in radiation physics. even if the elemental descriptions of conception and perform are awarded in a structure that's appropriate regularly as a revision textual content for undergraduate and postgraduate scholars, the ebook additionally serves as an advent to the sphere which will be of curiosity to different educated staff. designated therapy is foregone within the pursuits of a accomplished survey. The ebook has developed from lectures given within the college of London MSc direction on radiation physics, and from undergraduate lectures given at Queen Mary and Westfield collage. commercial in addition to clinical facets of the sector are thought of.
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Extra resources for A Primer in Applied Radiation Physics
Though Rutherford would have preferred to remain in England at the center of British scientific activity, he was att racted by McGill’s state-of-the-art physics laboratory. These fi ne facilities had been donated by Sir William MacDonald, an antismoker who, ironically, had made a fortune with tobacco. Rutherford (who happened to be a heavy smoker) accepted McGill’s offer, and after he had sett led in to his new surroundings, he began tests with Becquerel rays from uranium. He wanted to fi nd out whether Becquerel rays were, as many suspected, a type of x radiation.
In hindsight, this was a very important deduction, but Becquerel attached no special significance to it. Testing to compare his newly discovered rays to other radiations, Becquerel found that uranium’s rays electrified air and passed through cardboard, aluminum, copper, and platinum. Ultraviolet light, cathode rays, and x rays could all make air conduct electricity. 1 Th is ability suggested that uranium’s rays were a type of x ray. Still, Becquerel believed that phosphorescence caused 15 A NEW SCIENCE uranium’s strange behavior, which meant the uranium rays should be a form of light.
Thompson, Elementary Lessons in Electricity & Magnetism (New York: Macmillan, 1901), 16. 23 A NEW SCIENCE When radiations capable of breaking molecules apart into ions (called “ionizing radiations”) bombard the air molecules near the electroscope, the air will become a conductor and carry away some (or all) of the electroscope’s charge. The electroscope leaves then fall towards each other, since less (or no) charge is available to counteract the pull of gravity. The experimenter can determine the strength of the radiation by the change in angle of the electroscope’s leaves.