By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This e-book stories present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It contains a record of concepts which can support to farther develop wisdom during this area.
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Extra resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
Ice can form by deposition provided that the air is supersaturated with respect to ice and the temperature is low enough. If the air is supersaturated with respect to water, a suitable particle may serve either as a condensationfreezing nucleus (in which case liquid water first condenses onto the particle and subsequently freezes) or as a deposition nucleus (in which case there is no intermediate liquid phase, at least on the macroscopic scale). It is generally thought that condensation-freezing is preferred at smaller supercoolings and large supersaturations, while deposition is preferred at large supercoolings and small supersaturation.
In a towering cumulus cloud with depth of $10 km and updraft speeds of $15 m sÀ1, the Lagrangian time scale is tp=10,000 m/15 m sÀ1 ^ 660 s ^ 11 min, only slightly longer than shallow cumulus clouds. The main advantage that a towering cumulus cloud experiences over that of a shallow cloud in forming precipitation particles is associated with the greater amounts of condensate that is produced in deeper clouds. Because precipitation growth by collection is a non-linear function of the amount of condensate in a cloud (Kessler 1969; Manton and Cotton 1977), precipitation growth proceeds quite rapidly in cumulonimbus clouds relative to low liquid water content cumulus clouds.
1970; Hobbs 1971), although, because of their solubilities and large sizes, they may enhance precipitation by serving as giant CCN. There appears to be a widespread and probably a fairly uniform source of CCN over both oceans and land, the nature of which has not been definitely established. A likely candidate is gas-to-particle conversion, which can produce particles up to a few tenths of a micrometer in diameter that can act as CCN if they are soluble and wettable. m. Most CCN consist predominately of sulphates, although some organic material is usually present.