Download Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton PDF

By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton

This e-book stories present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It contains a record of concepts which can support to farther develop wisdom during this area.

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Extra resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review

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Ice can form by deposition provided that the air is supersaturated with respect to ice and the temperature is low enough. If the air is supersaturated with respect to water, a suitable particle may serve either as a condensationfreezing nucleus (in which case liquid water first condenses onto the particle and subsequently freezes) or as a deposition nucleus (in which case there is no intermediate liquid phase, at least on the macroscopic scale). It is generally thought that condensation-freezing is preferred at smaller supercoolings and large supersaturations, while deposition is preferred at large supercoolings and small supersaturation.

In a towering cumulus cloud with depth of $10 km and updraft speeds of $15 m sÀ1, the Lagrangian time scale is tp=10,000 m/15 m sÀ1 ^ 660 s ^ 11 min, only slightly longer than shallow cumulus clouds. The main advantage that a towering cumulus cloud experiences over that of a shallow cloud in forming precipitation particles is associated with the greater amounts of condensate that is produced in deeper clouds. Because precipitation growth by collection is a non-linear function of the amount of condensate in a cloud (Kessler 1969; Manton and Cotton 1977), precipitation growth proceeds quite rapidly in cumulonimbus clouds relative to low liquid water content cumulus clouds.

1970; Hobbs 1971), although, because of their solubilities and large sizes, they may enhance precipitation by serving as giant CCN. There appears to be a widespread and probably a fairly uniform source of CCN over both oceans and land, the nature of which has not been definitely established. A likely candidate is gas-to-particle conversion, which can produce particles up to a few tenths of a micrometer in diameter that can act as CCN if they are soluble and wettable. m. Most CCN consist predominately of sulphates, although some organic material is usually present.

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