By Peter Hodges
What can we degree and why? Peter Hodges explains the reply to this question in approachable language and with transparent illustrations. beginners to the video undefined, in addition to these already verified, will locate this uniquely readable consultant to the fundamentals of a fancy topic. construction at the good fortune of the 2 earlier variants of this renowned name and masking either analog and electronic video, the 3rd variation contains new sections on audio size, excessive definition video, and leading edge suggestions of try and dimension.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Video and Audio Measurement
Therefore: when R = B = G = 0 the result is black when R = B = G = 100% the result is white when xR + xB + xG = XY where XY is the equivalent luminance, or grey, value. Where the scene has only one colour present, say, red, neither green nor blue will be present. Other colours are a mixture of red, green and blue in various amounts. There are also the colour opposites to red, green and blue, which are cyan, magenta and yellow. These are the complimentary colours, and result when one of the primaries is not present: R + B = Magenta.
Field 1 starts with a half line, field 2 ends with a half line. On completing a field, the scan returns to the top of the picture to start the next but, this time, displaced by half a line. The process repeats every two fields, making one frame. When the bottom of the picture is reached, the scan returns to the top. All this action is conducted ‘out of picture’. In fact, one can consider the picture as having a black frame where all the mechanics of picture construction go on unseen. With many displays the active scan size actually exceeds the physical size of the screen, thereby producing a cut off.
625 line video uses 25 pictures, or frames, per second. Breaking the picture into horizontal lines and sending these one after the other was the technique chosen by early television engineers to transmit pictures down a cable. 5 illustrates the concept. This produces a serial signal which may be sent over the two-wire circuit of video cable, or, as we often say, a single circuit. The PAL system uses 625 lines, the NTSC uses 525. These differences have far reaching implications, and why they came to be chosen is now embedded in history.