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There are two categories: ● van der Waals’ forces; ● hydrogen bonds. 32 S TRUCTURE AND B ONDING (7) van der Waals’ forces Induced-dipole/induced-dipole forces Induced-dipole/induced-dipole forces, also called temporary dipole/temporary dipole forces, are weak attractive forces that exist between all molecules. They arise when an instantaneous imbalance in the electron distribution in a molecule induces a corresponding imbalance in neighbouring molecules, leading to a weak electrostatic attraction.

50 T HE P ERIODIC TABLE (7) Group 7 The elements in group 7 comprise the halogens. Some information about the halogens chlorine to iodine is given in the table below. 215 Chlorine (Cl2) turns damp blue litmus paper red, then bleaches it. Cl2(g) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) + HClO(aq) chloric (I) acid Bromine (Br2) displaces iodine from a solution of potassium iodide and, as a consequence, the iodine turns starch blue-black. ) Br2(aq) + 2I–(aq) I2(aq) + 2Br–(aq) Iodine (I2) turns starch solution from colourless to blue-black.

This difference is explained by the additional presence of permanent-dipole/permanent-dipole forces between propanone molecules. H3 C C δ+ O H3 C CH3 δ– C δ+ CH3 O δ– 33 S TRUCTURE AND B ONDING (8) Hydrogen bonding The hydrogen bond is the strongest intermolecular force, typically about 1/10th the strength of a covalent bond. A hydrogen bond is a weak directional bond formed between a δ+ hydrogen atom in one molecule and the lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom in another molecule.

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