Download Atmospheric Circulation Dynamics and General Circulation by Masaki Satoh PDF

By Masaki Satoh

General flow types (GCMs), which outline the basic dynamics of atmospheric move, are these days utilized in quite a few fields of atmospheric technology comparable to climate forecasting, weather predictions and environmental estimations. the second one version of this well known paintings has been up-to-date to incorporate fresh growth of excessive solution worldwide modeling. It additionally comprises for the 1st time features of high-resolution international non-hydrostatic types that the writer has been learning because the e-book of the 1st version. a few highlighted effects from the Non-hydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric version (NICAM) also are integrated. the writer outlines the theoretical techniques, basic types and numerical tools for modeling the overall move of the ambience. focusing on the actual mechanisms answerable for the improvement of large-scale stream of the ambience, the booklet bargains accomplished assurance of a huge and swiftly constructing strategy utilized in the atmospheric technology. Dynamic interpretations of the atmospheric constitution and their features within the common circulate version are defined step by way of step.

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20) where κ = Rd /Cp . Since θπ = h, we have 1 dp ρ = θdπ = dh − πdθ. 2) can be rewritten as −θ∇π − ∇Φ 0 = = π∇θ − ∇σ. 2 1 ∂σ π ∂z = = θ T ∂T g + ∂z Cp . 1) 2Ω × v = − ∇p − ∇Φ, ρ which is called the geostrophic balance. Applying the rotation operator to this gives 1 0 = 2Ω · ∇v − 2Ω(∇ · v) − ∇ × ∇p. 3) which is called the thermal wind balance. Eq. 2) can also be given from the balance of the vorticity equation in the rotating frame. 4) Sec. 2). These terms are the tilting term, the stretching term, and the baroclinic term, respectively.

The contribution of the centrifugal force is small). From this fact, it is generally assumed for the study of atmospheric dynamics that gravitational potential energy is spherically symmetric. The sea surface on the Earth agrees with an iso-surface of potential energy Φ, which is called the geoid. 8), we can assume that the geoid of the Earth is an exact sphere with a constant radius R. , the geoid given by a constant Sec. 1] Hydrostatic balance 35 surface of Φ). In addition, the atmosphere can be assumed to be thin; that is, z 1.

This form of the equations of motion is called the NavierStokes equation. We then derive the momentum equation in a rotating frame. We define the angular velocity of the rotating frame by Ω, which is constant irrespective of time. We also designate a quantity in the inertial frame by a subscript a and that in the rotating frame by a subscript r. A time derivative of a vector A is transformed as dA dt = a dA dt + Ω × A. 26) Sec. 2] Conservation laws and basic equations 15 where v a is velocity in the inertial frame and v r is velocity in the rotating frame.

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