By Walter Tape
Published via the yank Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.
Atmospheric halos are seen phenomena of a lot good looks and fascination. From our earliest recognized files, relationship from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to fashionable researchers, halos have saved us taking a look skyward. because of gentle refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals seem like, in particular those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the price of the elusive perspective x, so severe to making a choice on the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens will we comprehend good and what monitors can we no longer comprehend at all?
This e-book responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and beginners alike will locate this ebook the definitive source at the topic. good points include:
- The "how to" in halo remark and photography
- Carefully analyzed photographs of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
- The early historical past of halo science
- Elegant new motives of the way halos form
- Authoritative dialogue of wierd radius halos
We invite you to gaze up and observe the realm of halos.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technology (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 strange Radius Halos are genuine (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight atypical Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the hunt for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge attitude (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's consultant to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 bizarre Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen ordinary Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 strange Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):
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Extra info for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X
Left) Allowing only ray paths for the tangent arc, that is, ray paths that enter and exit alternate prism faces. T h e tilts of the crystals are zero. (Middle) Allowing all ray paths. T h e tilts of the crystals are still zero. (Right) Allowing all ray paths. T h e tilts of the crystals are several degrees. 42 CHAPTER 5 Halo Simulations W e understand halos far better t o d a y t h a n t h i r t y years ago. Several factors are responsible, b u t none more significant t h a n t h e simulation of halos by computer.
The theory that he presented was purely qualitative, and we do not know whether he actually made the calculations that would have made his explanation more convincing. Nevertheless, to suggest that halos were due to ice particles was an important step. It prompted at least one other person to think along similar lines. That person was Christiaan Huygens, and it seems to be Huygens who came up with the first quantitative explanation for halos. 2). 48. 4. Huygens also showed how these same cylinders, if floating with their axes horizontal instead of vertical, would give illumination from the regions above and below the 22° halo rather than from the regions to the right and left of it; such cylinders would thus explain the tangent arc.
5 39 FORM light points How to find refracted and reflected rays. (Left) Incident, reflected, and refracted rays S , S ' , and R at a boundary b e t w e e n media having refractive indices n, and n . 2 The boundary is perpendicular to the plane of the paper, and all rays are in the plane of the paper. T h e dashed ray R' is j u s t to complete the s y m m e t r y ; it is the ray that w o u l d reflect to R and refract to S'. (Right) T h e corresponding light points S, S', R and R'. T h e light points all lie on a line normal to the boundary, and any one of t h e m therefore determines the others.