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2... κη[χγ ' Introducing the conditional solubility product, K'8, gives: K's = Ks/ocBO = C B [ A ~ ] , from which the solubility is: 8 = (KJ*B0)W, or £ = [ÜTS(1 + * i [ X ] + # i # 2 [ X ] 2 + . . + ^ 1 ^ 2 . ^ [ X ] n ) f . (138) However, the possibility of complex formation should be taken into account even if there is no foreign ligand in the solution, because the common ion may also act as a complexing agent. Thus, for instance, for a complex of type BA 2 both dissociation and complex formation by t h e common ion must be considered.

Can be calculated from a simplified form of equation (103): « -_ 1 K ° [H+] + Ka where Ka is the acid dissociation constant of the protonated ligand. The substitution of this value into equation (126) leads to an expression for the equilibrium concentration of the ligand. As an example, the concentration of species MX 2 in the solution of a complex MX 4 at a given pH may be determined. If in equation (123) the concentration of the ligand is replaced by Κχθχ, [ΜΧ 2 ] is given by: ^Ä(«iCx)2CM 1 + KfaCx) + KjK^Cx)* + K^K^CxY + K^KsK^Cy?

4-7. If 0·02 mol/dm 3 of hydrochloric acid is added to the solution, acetate ions are converted into acetic acid molecules by the hydrogen ions. Thus [CH3COO-] = 0-1 - 0-02 = 0-08 mol/dm 3 and [CH3COOH] = 0-1 + 0-02 = 0-12 mol/dm 3 . Therefore, 0Ί2 [H+] = - ^ = - Χ ΐ · 8 χ 1 0 - 5 = 2-7Χ 1 0 - 5 mol/dm 3 , 0-08 so t h a t the ρΉ. = 4-5. On addition of more hydrochloric acid, the ρΉ. varies as follows: HC1 added (mol/dm 3 ) 0-00 0-02 0-05 0-08 0-10 0-20 p& 4-7 4-5 4-2 3-8 2-7 10 If, instead, 0-02 mole of sodium hydroxide is added to the solution, the concentration of acetic acid decreases and t h a t of acetate ions increases.

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