Download Biodiversity in the Marine Environment by Philippe Goulletquer PDF

By Philippe Goulletquer

Oceans and seas hide greater than 70 % of the Earth and carry terribly rich
biodiversity, all the way down to nice depths the place plentiful existence varieties thrive close to ocean ridges. yet marine biodiversity continues to be poorly recognized and faces a variety of threats. Endangered by means of ever-increasing pressures from human actions, it's also delicate to climate-based disturbances, specifically their effects on ocean acidification.
Contents
1 the significance of Marine Biodiversity
Key Features
Hierarchical Components
The useful value of Biodiversity
Marine Biodiversity and atmosphere Services
2 The affects of Human actions on Marine Biodiversity
The Strategic worth of Research
3 prestige and Trends
How Many Marine Species are There?
Taxonomic Records
Cryptic Species
The DNA Barcode
The force to spot New Species
The “Taxonomic Impediment”
Extinct Species
Endangered Species
Ecosystems stressed: The Deep Sea
Climate Change
Acidification, a “Chemical reflect” of Ocean Warming
Spatial Patterning of Characteristics
Large-Scale Patterns
Local styles (Habitats)
Habitat Classification
Population constitution and Connectivity
Biological Invasions
Temporal Patterns
Geological Scale
Historical Scale
Cascading Effects
Fisheries Trends—Other makes use of of Marine Ecosystems
Dedicated Time Series
4 Conceptualising Biodiversity
Conceptual Frameworks for Relationships among Biodiversity and Human Societies
Choice of version Framework
5 Measuring Biodiversity
Measuring Genetic Diversity
Measuring Species Diversity
Assessing the worth of Marine Biodiversity
Analytical tools appropriate to the Human Dimensions of
Marine Biodiversity
Methods of Social technological know-how Analysis
Understanding the Human Context
Understanding Human Interactions
Understanding bills and merits of Biodiversity Protections
Understanding affects of activities to guard Marine Biodiversity
Marine and Coastal Biodiversity symptoms (SINP-Mer together Operated through Ifremer, MNHN and AAMP)
6 Drivers of adjustments in Biodiversity and its Uses
Environmental Drivers: A operating Framework
Evolutionary Timescales
Ecological Timescales
Causes of Pressures
Importance of Disturbance: Biodiversity, Resilience and Robustness of Marine Ecosystems
The medical Challenge
Knowns
Unknowns
Human Drivers
Knowns
Unknowns
Social
Cultural
7 built-in eventualities and Policies
Policies and determination Support
Developing Scenarios
Qualitative studying from earlier Experience
Quantitative studying from prior Experience
Learning from Analytical and Mathematical Reasoning
Learning from digital Experiments (in silico)
Learning via Doing
Quantitative tools, types and built-in Assessment
Coupling Ecological, Environmental and Socioeconomic Models
Diversity vs. Homogeneity of Models
Modelling: situations and evaluation Challenges
Complex Dynamic Systems
Multi-Criteria Issues
Sustainability and Intergenerational Equity
Precaution, chance research and Management
Adaptive Management
Governance, Coordination and Compliance
8 examine Needs
The Framework: Environmental Research
Research Systems
Sustaining environment Services
Naturalistic Dimensions
Linking Ecological services and atmosphere Services
Measuring the Genetic foundation of Biodiversity
Differentiating Evolutionary and Ecological Time Scales
Putting Fish shares again of their Ecosystems
Impacts of actual facilities and toxins on Biodiversity
Human Dimensions of Research
Data Issues
Cultures, associations, Appropriation
Demographics and Economics
Decision-Making Processes
Developing Modelling: A Summarising procedure

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Extra resources for Biodiversity in the Marine Environment

Example text

Between 2003-2007 and 1978-1982 – 10 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Fig. 10 Warming observed in surface sea water since 1955. Left: global scale, 0–700 m layer of the world ocean. Times series of yearly ( black curve) and seasonal ( red curve) mean heat content over the 1955–2006 period; one unit on the ordinate axis corresponds to 1022 J. (Levitus et al. 2009). Right: North-East Atlantic. Plot of the differences between the average sea surface temperatures (Δ SST, °C) of the 2003–2007 and 1978–1982 periods (Tasker 2008) Fig.

Assuming that the proportion of synonyms is about 10–20 %, this means that from 1,300 to 1,500 species are added to the marine inventory annually. Apart from molluscs, the contribution from knowledgeable amateurs is small for marine species descriptions, compared to the contributions of amateurs or citizen scientists in terrestrial environments which account for 46 % of new descriptions in Europe. 6). edu/. Number of species The “Taxonomic Impediment”  29 500 439 Total = 1635 sp. 400 354 300 200 100 80 89 63 76 48 98 121 106 9 4 21 30 21 27 64 1 Fish Ceta cean s gi Porif era Cnid aria Plat yhelm inthe s Nem erte a Nem atod es Moll uscs Ann elids Crus tace ans Bryo zoan s Ech inod erm s Tun icate Othe s r inv erte brat es zoa Fun Prot o es Prok aryo t Alga e 0 Fig.

Respectively 28,500, 22,000 and 13,500 t in 2008, 2009 and 2010. fr/. 36 3 Status and Trends national trade data statistics show that fishing quotas are still being exceeded today. The scientific committee of ICCAT will evaluate the effects of these measures and how they may evolve, but at the least, strict management measures will have to be maintained during a decade or so to rebuild this population. Tuna aquaculture, especially capture-based farming and fattening, is not considered to be a sustainable alternative to fisheries for several reasons.

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