By Ralph E H Sims
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Additional info for Bioenergy Project Development and Biomass Supply - Good Practice Guidelines (2007)
In addition over 3 billion litres of biodiesel were produced, mostly in Europe. 00/lge. 90/l (oilseed rape, Europe; soybean, USA; palm oil; Malaysia) (Figure 17). 75/lge. 2 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 75 70 Brent crude (USD/bbl) Present cost ranges Bioethanol Biodiesel Cost estimates by 2030 ES: EC: EB: EW: ELC: Sugarcane Corn Beet Wheat Ligno-cellulose BA: Animal fats BV: Vegetable oils FT: Fischer Tropsch synthesis liquids Daily wholesale gasoline and diesel prices (USD/l free on board) in 12 locations versus the crude oil price compared with the production cost ranges for biofuels without any government support schemes, both now and as anticipated by 2030.
However a poor understanding of the project risks by bank managers and investors can lead to difÞculty obtaining Þnance and a deÞcit of capital needed to build the project is the result. Relatively high transaction costs are also commonly experienced for the development of smaller scale plants since it costs a similar amount of time, effort and money to secure USD 2M Þnance for say a 1 to 2 MW project as it does to secure USD 200M for a 50 - 100MW project. Figure 18 " Anaerobic digestion plant and biogas storage tank This 4 000 sow pig farm in South England using two gas engines (housed in the closed shed) to provide electricity for use on the farm as well as low grade heat for drying lucerne for horse feed as an ancillary farm operation.
Growers and local land management authorities should therefore always consider the possible impacts on water demand when selecting and approving land use change on a speciÞc site. 48 Water demand for new crops can be a major constraint in some dry and arid regions. The demand for water will vary with the choice of species (Eucalyptus being greater than Pinus for example) and on the varieties selected for planting. In some circumstances the planting of short rotation coppice crops and forest crops can be utilised to absorb water and excess nutrients as a land remediation process.