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By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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Due to the limitations for direct ET as derived from Marcus theory, these observations are most likely not caused by a true direct ET process but alternative explanations have to be considered despite the observed and repeatedly obtained effects. Alternatively, the ET distance may be decreased by the formation of enzyme–nanoparticle hybrids in which the nanoparticle penetrates into the protein shell [265]. However, in these cases the catalytic current for glucose oxidation is often obtained at high overpotentials.

The modification of biomolecules with nanomaterials or coupling of biomolecules and nanomaterials is the third category of approach towards nanobiosensors. Of course the lines between these approaches are blurred and some sensor designs may draw from more than one of these concepts. 1 Modification of Macroscopic Transducers with Nanomaterials There is an enormous variety of nanomaterials that can potentially be employed in biosensor architectures. The most prominent among them are metal nanoparticles [304], quantum dots [308], and carbon nanotubes [309–311].

The modification of a (macroscopic) transducer with nanomaterials is the first of these approaches. In electrochemical biosensors, this would translate into large electrodes modified with nanomaterials. The second approach is the miniaturization of the transducer, namely the use of nanoelectrodes [307] or other miniaturized circuitry of nanometric dimensions. The modification of biomolecules with nanomaterials or coupling of biomolecules and nanomaterials is the third category of approach towards nanobiosensors.

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