By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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Within the Bhopal catastrophe of 1984, nearly 2,000 citizens residing close to a chemical plant have been killed and 20,000 extra suffered irreversible harm to their eyes and lungs following the unintended unlock of methyl isocyanate. This tragedy served to concentration foreign awareness at the want for governments to spot harmful components and support neighborhood groups in making plans the way to take care of emergency exposures.
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Extra resources for Chemical Marketing in the Competitive Sixties
Due to the limitations for direct ET as derived from Marcus theory, these observations are most likely not caused by a true direct ET process but alternative explanations have to be considered despite the observed and repeatedly obtained effects. Alternatively, the ET distance may be decreased by the formation of enzyme–nanoparticle hybrids in which the nanoparticle penetrates into the protein shell . However, in these cases the catalytic current for glucose oxidation is often obtained at high overpotentials.
The modiﬁcation of biomolecules with nanomaterials or coupling of biomolecules and nanomaterials is the third category of approach towards nanobiosensors. Of course the lines between these approaches are blurred and some sensor designs may draw from more than one of these concepts. 1 Modiﬁcation of Macroscopic Transducers with Nanomaterials There is an enormous variety of nanomaterials that can potentially be employed in biosensor architectures. The most prominent among them are metal nanoparticles , quantum dots , and carbon nanotubes [309–311].
The modiﬁcation of a (macroscopic) transducer with nanomaterials is the ﬁrst of these approaches. In electrochemical biosensors, this would translate into large electrodes modiﬁed with nanomaterials. The second approach is the miniaturization of the transducer, namely the use of nanoelectrodes  or other miniaturized circuitry of nanometric dimensions. The modiﬁcation of biomolecules with nanomaterials or coupling of biomolecules and nanomaterials is the third category of approach towards nanobiosensors.