Download Climate change impact and adaptation in agricultural systems by Jürg Fuhrer, Peter J. Gregory PDF

By Jürg Fuhrer, Peter J. Gregory

This publication includes 17 chapters concentrating on the affects of weather swap on ecosystems, meals safety, water assets and fiscal balance. innovations to boost sustainable platforms that reduce effect on weather and/or mitigate the results of human task on weather switch also are offered. on hand In Print

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2013) estimated that the overall effect of observed climate change on yields of maize and soybean in the USA was small, whereas it has reduced yields of these crops by 5–8% in Brazil and increased soybean yields in Argentina by about 2%. However, recent events of persistent high temperatures in the USA seem to have had negative effects on yields of both maize and soybean (Schlenker and Roberts, 2009). 3 Responses to Climate Change The biophysical processes of agroecosystems are affected strongly by environmental conditions.

2009). Intensive systems in cool climates may therefore respond favourably to a modest climatic warming (Olesen and Bindi, 2002). , 2010). , 2011). , 2008). An increase in temperature variability has been observed, due primarily to an increase in warm extremes (Klein Tank and Können, 2003). 4°C per decade). , 2012). , 2001). , 2008). , 2010). , 2006). Across many of these regions with intensive rainfed agriculture, there has also been an increase in droughts, linked partly with changes in the occurrence of rainfall and due partly to greater evapotranspiration associated with higher temperatures (Dai, 2013).

However, soils are also important in controlling water and nutrient cycles, for carbon storage, and for regulating greenhouse gas emissions. , 2009). Increasing temperatures will speed the decomposition of soil organic matter where soil moisture allows. Hence, direct climate impacts on cropland soils will tend to decrease soil organic stocks, unless this is counterbalanced by larger inputs of organic matter in crop residues (Falloon and Betts, 2010). Any reduction in soil organic matter stocks can lead to a decrease in fertility and biodiversity, loss of soil structure, reduced soil water infiltration and retention capacity, and increased risk of erosion and compaction.

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