Download Climate: Present, Past and Future: Volume 1: Fundamentals by Hubert H. Lamb PDF

By Hubert H. Lamb

First released in 1972, this primary quantity of Professor Lamb’s learn of our altering weather bargains with the basics of weather and climatology, in addition to delivering worldwide info at the modern climates of the 20 th century.

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Outside the tropics the diurnal rhythm is not always well marked, but it is so at times and occurs within spells in which continuance of the same general weather type from day to day can readily be recognized. Seasonal changes can sometimes be recognized in ways rather similar to the diurnal rhythm, the characteristic difference being the longer time-scale. Spells of weather are sometimes so long that they give their stamp to the character of a whole season, and their ending marks the end of a natural season, a concept that is strengthened by some approach to regularity of date in the middle and higher latitudes - as with the mid-June return of the west winds and the late October wind and rain in most years over much of Europe, followed by anticyclones in mid November - and by great regularity of occurrence within some broader range of dates practically every year in low latitudes - as with the Indian monsoon.

More recent calculations have suggested values varying from 1·89 to 2·07 ly/min, and Professor C. W. ALLEN (1958) on the basis of observations by the Australian Commonwealth Observatory from 1926 to about 1950 has recommended adoption of 1·98 or }. 99. For most practical purposes it may be taken as 2 caIlcm 2/min. This is called the Solar Constant; it is the amount of radiation which in the absence of the atmosphere would be available to heat the surface.! Since its calculation may be in error by up to 5% on account of the allowances that have to be made for atmospheric effects, there is no certainty as to whether the value has been rising up to 1950 (as the figures quoted might suggest) or has been strictly constant over the years of observation.

L Vertical divisions of the atmosphere. Note: Since 1960 rocket observations have been pressed to greater heights. many to 65 km, some to 130 km. The minimum heights (perigee) of artificial satellite (sputnik) orbits are commonly 150-200 km. Fundamentals Stratosphere. The region above the tropopause as far as the level of maximum temperature (sometimes called the 'stratopause') about the top of the ozone layer (50-55 km). Temperature in the lower stratosphere often changes little with height, then generally increases to the top of the ozone layer.

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