Download Climate Variability, Predictability and Climate Risks: A by Heinz Wanner, Martin Grosjean, Regine Röthlisberger, Elena PDF

By Heinz Wanner, Martin Grosjean, Regine Röthlisberger, Elena Xoplaki

Heinz Wanner is the pinnacle of the weather study staff and Director of the NCRR administration Center.

Martin Grosjean is

Regine Rothlisberger is a technological know-how Officer with the NCCR weather administration Center.

Elena Xoplaki is a technological know-how Officer with the NCCR weather administration Center.

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1, ECMWF, Reading, UK. p. 74 Goosse H, Crwoley TJ, Zorita E, Ammann H, Renssen CM, Driesschaert E (2005) Modelling the climate of the last millennium: What causes the differences between simulations. 1029/2005GL022368 Gr¨otzner A, Latif M, Barnett TP (1998) A decadal cycle in the North Atlantic ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. J Climate 11:831–847 Guiot J, Nicault A, Rathgeber C, Edouard J, Guibal F, Pichard G, Till C (2005) Last-millennium summertemperature variations in western Europe based on proxy data.

74 Goosse H, Crwoley TJ, Zorita E, Ammann H, Renssen CM, Driesschaert E (2005) Modelling the climate of the last millennium: What causes the differences between simulations. 1029/2005GL022368 Gr¨otzner A, Latif M, Barnett TP (1998) A decadal cycle in the North Atlantic ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. J Climate 11:831–847 Guiot J, Nicault A, Rathgeber C, Edouard J, Guibal F, Pichard G, Till C (2005) Last-millennium summertemperature variations in western Europe based on proxy data. Holocene 15:489–500 Springer Climatic Change (2006) 79:9–29 27 Hagemann S, Duemenil-Gates, L (2001) Validation of the hydrological cycle of ECMWF and NCEP reanalyses using the MPI hydrological discharge model.

2003). Noting that indirect aerosol forcing has the largest uncertainty among radiative forcing agents, the results of the latter studies constitute a reduction in the uncertainty of this effect in comparison to the forward modeling approach (Anderson et al. 2003a). However these studies do not place a strong constraint upon the climate sensitivity and the value of the ocean mixing parameter with the given large uncertainties in forcing. 3 Ensemble kalman filtering As noted earlier there are large uncertainties associated with the representation of unresolved processes in climate models.

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