By Jacqueline Jong de
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The two are special instances of the criterion discussed above. 4. The notion of a conversation clearly depends on people's ability to speak, to report, to discuss—that is on the constraints imposed by the languages and interfaces that structure the exchanges with others. The notions of language and interface will prove important when I explore how actors 'inform' each other, and how they use other actors' actions as resources for their own actions. Neither notion is of course alien to music. We often refer to the language of music as a means of communication and emotional expression (Cooke, 1963; Raffman, 1993), and to user interfaces to define how we play musical instruments.
According to the above formulation we may say that the properties of the collectives maintain those of the elements, and vice versa. This suggests a more familiar way of referring to the elements in collectives, that is, as 'actors', and to the time-dependent observational variations actors generate as 'actions'. There is a danger in the use of such notions, however, as both labels, viz. actors and actions, are used also in daily life, or rather when there is no interest in inquiry. However, no difficulty should arise if one remains aware of the differences between the two contexts.
Pask calls this language a ‘protolanguage’, which has the same meaning as the term L2 that I use. “A conversation is an active linguistic interaction between actors, namely, the participants by whom personal concepts are exchanged and, in part, shared. The shared concepts are dubbed as public concepts and are exteriorized, together with their interrelations. 19) Conversation aims to strengthen the coordination between participants. It produces consciousness with each other about an agreement to understand ‘something’ in a particular way (Pask, 1987).