By Helena Pereira
This entire ebook describes cork as a average product, as an commercial raw-materials, and as a wine bottle closure. From its formation within the outer bark of the cork oak tree to the houses which are of relevance to its use, cork is gifted and defined together with its actual and mechanical properties.The commercial processing of cork from post-harvest techniques to the construction of cork agglomerates and composites is described.Intended as a reference e-book, this is often the fitting compilation of clinical wisdom on state of the art cork construction and use Key Features:*Presents entire assurance from cork formation to post-harvest procedures*Explains the actual homes, mechanical homes and caliber of cork*Addresses subject matters of curiosity for these in foodstuff technological know-how, agriculture and forestry
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Extra info for Cork: Biology, Production and Uses
9. Conclusions References 33 36 38 39 41 44 48 51 52 53 Cork is a cellular material with closed cells. In materials science, a cellular material is defined as a material made up of empty cellular elements, either open or closed, with a solid fraction under 30% of the total volume. In materials with closed cells, these are polyhedral volumes with solid faces that are in contact with the adjacent cells. The properties of cellular solids depend on the way the solid is distributed in the cell faces and edges.
Two cells contact each other in a face, three cells contact in an edge and four cells in a vertex. 7a. The cells in cork are therefore polyhedral with 14 faces (tetrakaidecahedron), with 8 faces limited by 6 edges (hexagonal) and 6 faces by 4 edges (square), topologically equivalent to the Kelvin’s polyhedron (Fig. 7b). 4. 6. Diagram of the three-dimensional structure of cork. 7. (a) Individual cell in cork showing edges and vertices, (b) the regular tetrakaidecahedra (Kelvin’s polyhedron). 4. Cell dimensions The cork cells are very small, much more than in normal foamed plastics, and the cell walls are thin.
His often reproduced schematic representation of the cell wall therefore does not take into account the chemical knowledge on the cork cell wall components. There are only a few additional measurements of the lamellae in the cork cell wall. Rosa et al. 6. 15. , 1991). 16. Model for the ultrastructure of the double cell wall from cork of Quercus suber. thickness less than 10 nm for the translucent lamellae and values varying from 5 to 20 nm for the dark electron-dense lamellae. 16 is a schematic representation of the ultrastructure of the cell wall from cork of Quercus suber incorporating the available knowledge on the cork chemical composition (see Chapter 3).