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By A. M. Hillas, Robert Robinson, Dean Athelstan Spilhaus and D. ter Haar (Auth.)

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As a result, in emulsions left for a period at high altitude where the cosmic-ray intensity was high, tracks of particles could be seen emanating from nuclear disintegrations but there was usually no trace of the particle which struck the nucleus, which was presumably relativistic. However, Perkins (1947) observed one disintegration evidently caused by a slow charged particle, in which the only apparent source of the energy release of 100 MeV was absorption of the rest mass energy of the particle.

8 The use of cosmic rays to investigate high-energy interactions Though the pion closed the chain of essential secondary radiations, work on the products of nuclear collisions intensified for several years, as several more unstable "elementary" particles quite unexpectedly came to light. In the year of the pion's discovery, the decay of the heavier K-meson was seen in cloud chamber photographs (Rochester and Butler, 1947)—an inverted V marked the decay of a neutral particle into two charged particles, without the mediation of any collision.

11. Fractional loss rate per radiation length from a beam of photons. ) In the air this free path is 47 g cm -2 , or less than one-twentieth of the depth of the atmosphere: thus y-rays found in the lower atmosphere must be of secondary origin. As the radiation length is only a few mm in lead, bremsstrahlung or pair production is very likely in the thickness of the plates used in the cloud chamber experiments. It had indeed been remarked that when a group of particles entered a chamber, further electrons and positrons were frequently generated in the lead plate, by a non-ionizing ray.

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