By S. Klingebiel
The goals of and causes for improvement cooperation have replaced considerably in recent years. along with pursuing brief- and longer-term goals of their personal financial, overseas coverage and different pursuits, donors often have a recognisable and real curiosity in supporting nations of their procedures of improvement.
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Additional resources for Development Cooperation: Challenges of the New Aid Architecture
At the other end of the spectrum were the “least developed countries”, where a large proportion of the population lived in absolute poverty. As this process of differentiation continued at a faster pace in the 1990s and 2000s (Koch 2012), the image of a homogeneous “South” became increasingly inaccurate. The pace of economic development in a number of important developing countries was also more rapid than in the OECD world. In the 2000s China and India achieved growth rates averaging three to four times higher than the OECD countries.
It is an indication that certain features of development cooperation depend on whether the donor is an individual state (bilateral development cooperation) or an international institution (multilateral development cooperation). 4 In practice, however, it is not always possible to make such an unequivocal distinction between bi- and multilateral development cooperation, there being various intermediate and special forms, the development cooperation in which the European Union engages and international agreements which lead to sectoral or regional quota arrangements even for bilateral development cooperation (Klingebiel 2012a).
Such a classification system is vital for development cooperation, since it groups potential recipients by need or lack of resources (that is, countries below an income threshold). This approach is coming under pressure for two reasons: First, the global welfare situation is undergoing a fundamental structural change to the benefit of the “South”. Development cooperation is based on an approach to redistribution which presupposes that the group of donors holds a substantial proportion of the world’s economic power and is prepared to provide some of it for developing countries in the form of aid.