By National Council on Radiation Protection
This record is anxious with neutron turbines that function at voltages under a number of hundred kilovolts and convey neutrons mainly through the T(d,n) response. The file presents info at the radiation safety difficulties within the use of those turbines and the skill to be had for facing those difficulties. it truly is meant to function a consultant to stable perform and produce jointly a few techniques proper to using low voltage neutron turbines that experience seemed in different NCRP records. The document surveys the radiations produced through low voltage neutron turbines and their dimension. It then addresses the basics of radiation defense, together with protecting and actual safeguards. tips is given on radioactive waste caused by using neutron turbines and data is equipped on nonradiation risks and licensing.
desk of Contents
2. Radiations Produced through Low-Voltage Neutron turbines
three. basics of Radiation safety
four. protective and different actual Safeguards
five. dimension of Radiation
6. Radioactive Waste: Nature, resources, dealing with, and garage
7. different risks
Appendix A: Definitions
Appendix B: size of Tritium
Appendix C: D-T Neutron defensive
Appendix D: NCRP assertion on Dose restrict for Neutrons
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Extra resources for Radiation Protection and Measurement for Low-Voltage Neutron Generators
6 / 2. RADIATIONS PRODUCED BY GENERATORS Some low-voltage neutron generators can be converted into x-ray machines simply by reversing the polarity of the accelerating voltage and of the extracting and focusing power supplies in the high-voItage terminal. Care shall be exercised that such a conversion is not made inadvertently. When operating as an x-ray machine, the recommendations of the NCRP for x-ray machines (NCRP Reports Nos. 33 and 49, NCRP, 1968; NCRP, 1976b) shall be followed. 3 Gamma Rays Low-energy deuterons cannot produce gamma-ray emitting excited states in tritium or deuterium If there are any protons in the accelerator beam, they can produce 20-MeV gamma rays by the T ( P , ~ ) ~ H ~ reaction, but the yield is very low.
The purpose is to see that the facility is correctly described (necessary for later reviews and for use in exposure investigations)' and that, in the surveyor's opinion, it will function properly and safely. After the generator has begun operating, a survey shall be made around the shielding to detect any excessive leakages through the shield. Surveys made at the time of major changes are similar to those made prior to use, but are limited in scope to the changes that have been made. The periodic surveys at facilities with low-voltage neutron generators are of two kinds.
Activities produced in other componenb in the accelerator will be considerably smaller and, generally, will be less important. The most troublesome activity will arise in aluminum components from the 27~l(n,p)27Mg and the 2 7 ~ l ( n , a ) " ~reactions. 0 hours, respectively. In one type of accelerator, bombardment of a 56-g aluminum target holder for one how at an average output of 4 x 10" neutrons per second produced, immediately after bombardment, gamma-ray exposure rates of about 200 mR h - b d 30 mR h-I, respectively, from the two reactions, at a distance of 10 crn from the target.